Pyrex Journal of Research in Environmental Studies (PJRES)

March 2016 Vol. 3(3), pp. 026-032

Copyright 2016 Pyrex Journals

Original Research Paper

Empirical Formulae Evaluation for Hydraulic Conductivity Determination Based on Grain Size Analysis

F Hussain* and G Nabi

Center of Excellence in Water Resources Engineering, UET, Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding Author E-mail:

Accepted 22nd February, 2016


Seven empirical formulae to calculate hydraulic conductivity using grain size distribution of unconsolidated aquifer materials have been evaluated in this study. Four soil samples extracted from an injection or recharge well during borehole drilling aimed at recharging the ground water through rainwater harvesting in Lahore Pakistan. The sample testing and grading analysis were done in CEWRE, UET Lahore soil laboratory. Results showed that out of seven empirical formulae three formulae (Kozeny-Carman, Hazen and Breyer) reliably estimated hydraulic conductivities of the various soil samples well within the known ranges while the others four formulae Slitcher, Terzaghi, USBR, Alyamani & Sen methods underestimated the results as compared to constant head method results for all samples. Kozeny-Carman Equation proved to be the best estimator of most samples analyzed, and maybe, even for a wide range of other soil types. This best estimation is followed by Hazen and Breyer formula after Kozeny-Carman formula. Most importantly, all these empirical formulae are to be used strictly within their domains of applicability.

Keywords: Hydraulic Conductivity, Empirical formulae, Grain-size analysis, constant head permeameter.

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