Pyrex Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences

January 2015 Vol. 2(1), pp. 023-030

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Full Length Research Paper

Phytochemical Content And Anti-Inflammatory And Diuretic Activities Of Ethanol Extract Of Amaranthus Hybridus In Experimental Animal Model


Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author E-mail:

Accepted 9th january, 2015.


The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory activities of Amaranthus hybridus in experimental albino rats. The preliminary phytochemical investigations were carried out to identify the various chemical constituents present in the ethanol extract. It was found that the extract contains alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, tannins, phenols, hydrocyanic acid and physic. Acute toxicity studies of plant extract were determined and LD50 was found to be 707.1mg/kg. Doses of 1000, 500, 250, 125,62.5 and 31.25mg/kg of the extract were administered intraperitoneally, furosemide (40mg/kg) was used as positive control in diuretic and Aspirin (100mg/kg) was also used as positive control as anti-inflammatory drug. The extract exhibited a significant increase in urine volume and the electrolyte at different concentration of 1000mg to 31.25mg. At 1000mg and 500mg concentration (2.55 0.07 and 2.15 0.07) respectively, exhibit a significant difference (P<0.07). This extract exhibit an increase in sodium (Na+) excreted at higher doses from 1000mg to 250mg (136.50 0.07, to 119.00 1.41), The potassium (K +) level decreases as the doses decreased from 1000mg to 250mg (17.50 0.71 to 14.50 0.71) and chloride concentration of the extract increases as the concentration also increased from 1000mg/kg to 250mg/kg (89.50 0.71, to 112.50 0.71) they are exhibited significant difference (P 0.05). Therefore, there was no significant difference between the treated group of biocarbonatic (HCO-3) at a concentration of 1000mg (25.00 0.000) (P). The average inflammation on the hind paw decreased as the time intervals increased from 30mins to 180mins, which shows 5.75 0.35 to 3.55 0.35, there was a significant anti-inflammatory activity (P< 0.05) exhibited at a various doses of the extract. The % inflammation on the hind paw of rats decreased as the time interval increased from 83.8 0.35 to 05.1 0.35 (P< 0.05). There was increase in % inflammation as dose decreased down in concentration (P<0.05), there was a significant difference. However, the % inhibition of inflammation increases as the time intervals increased from 16.6 0.35 to 34.8 0.36, at all the doses of extract and also exhibited significant difference (P<0.05). This study has demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and diuretic activity of ethanol leaf extracts of Amaranthushybridus in reducing of inflammation and induced diuretic in albino rats and this may be due to the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the plant.

Keywords: Amaranthus, hybridus, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, ethanol extract, Wistar albino rat.

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