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Pyrex Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research (PJMBR)

August 2016 Vol. 2(2), pp. 15-21

ISSN: 2985-8836

Copyright © 2016 Pyrex Journals




Full Length Research Paper


Prevalence of Hiv/Aids and Pulmonary Tuberculosis Co-Infection among Patients Attending Some Health Centres of Bauchi Metropolis


IIiyasu MY1*, Abbas HM2 and Ashiegbu JN3

1Biological Sciences Department, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, ATBU, Bauchi, Nigeria.
2Infectious Diseases Hospital Bayara, Bauchi state, Nigeria.
3Department of Science Laboratory Technology (SLT), Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author E-mail: abuumaryamm@gmail.com

Accepted 26th August, 2016



Abstract


The global impact of the converging dual epidemic of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of our major public health challenges. In this study, a total of 262 confirmed HIV positive patients were screened for co-infection with the PTB. They consist of 147 males and 115 females, with an age range from 1 to 60 years and above, hailed mainly from urban (119) and semi-urban (78) settings, mainly civil servants (61) and traders (52). Out of the HIV patients tested for PTB, 7.3% were smear-positive (co-infected) with highest prevalence 13.7% found among the age group of 31 to 40 years, males (8.2%). The HIV prevalence of 12.3% was in PTB negative patients, females (16.5%) with high rate 17.8% in 21 to 30 years group. HIV negative/PTB positive frequency of 11.6% was observed among the males. Prevalence of HIV/PTB co-infection (11.5%) was in the traders/artisans, then drivers (8.8%) with rates of (15.4%) and (19.6%) respectively for HIV only. In the control group, the highest prevalence of PTB (19.6%) was also among the traders/artisans, but followed by farmers (15.4%). Most of the patients are from urban settings, with HIV/PTB (7.6%) and HIV cases alone (13.4%), while PTB cases were more prevalent (21.5%) in those from rural areas. Patientsí clinical profile shows that prevalence of HIV/PTB co-infection (15.5%) and HIV alone (27.3%) was within patients not on HAART. A similar rate 9.4% and 12.3% were also found among patients not on TB treatment, with the co-infection also higher 12.3% in those with low CD4 cells count. The rate of HIV/PTB co-infection in our study is generally lower than the single occurrence and is associated with delayed therapy which predisposes the patients with immunosuppression.

Keywords: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), immunosuppression, traders/artisans, civil servants, farmers.

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